Elementary and Middle School Teachers and Technology: Examining the
integration of iPad technology into elementary and middle school instruction

This recent area of research has focused on the integration of iPads in elementary and middle school
classrooms. Using a designed-based research methodology, our research team is working with middle
school teachers at a local elementary and middle school to develop curriculum and pedagogies that
integrate the iPad technology in ways that create strong science learning and pedagogical practices. 

Many schools are beginning to adopt one-to-one computing with the goal of developing students’ 21st
century skills, which allow students to learn not only content but also acquire critical skills (e.g.creativity,
collaboration, and digital literacy) that will lead to future careers (Pellegrino & Hilton, 2012). Technology
offers teachers the ability to transform the quality of instruction – to achieve a more student-centered
learning environment, have more differentiated instruction, and develop problem or project based learning,
and demand higher order thinking skills (Penuel, 2006). Additionally, technology integration, specifically
mobile one-to-one technology, into the classroom offers many benefits to student learning. According to
Lipponen (2002), technology can enhance peer interaction and group work, facilitate knowledge sharing,
and distribute knowledge and expertise among the learning community.

By having technology used on a daily basis in the classroom, teachers are improving their practice as well
as their students’ learning and knowledge advancement. Researchers (e.g. Keengwe, Schnellert, & Mills,
2012) have demonstrated that technology integration is essential to meet this goal, however the existing
technology infrastructures are often insufficient to develop the desired outcomes of these implementations
(Greaves, Hayes, Wilson, Gielniak, & Peterson, 2012). Many current classroom teachers have yet to
incorporate technology into their teaching practices. Currently, there has been little research (e.g. Fleisher,
2012; Greaves et al., 2012) that examines teacher appropriation of the tablets into their pedagogy. Teachers
often do not understand or have the time to spend learning about the functionality of the devices.

This study utilizes the current research to advance the knowledge about teacher technology efficacy. It
develops an understanding of how teachers currently are using mobile one-to-one technology in the
classroom and if content specific professional development increases teacher technology efficacy. Using a
TPACK framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006), this design-based research project examines the classroom
practice of elementary and middle grades teachers integrating a 1:1 initiative in their classrooms.

Project Team:

Dr. Janice L. Anderson
Martinette Horner, PK12 Distinguished Educator

Graduate Students:

Terrell Morton
Alex Reyes
Aubrey Compatore
Lana Minshew
Rhonda SInquefield
Dana Copeland
Elizabeth Barrow

RTSP Funding
iPadagogy Project


Minshew, L.M. & Anderson, J.L. (in press). Teacher Efficacy in 1:1 iPad Integration in a Middle School
Science and Math Classrooms. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education.

Anderson, J., Minshew, M. & Brown, S. (2015). Exploring Sound! Using iPads in Middle School Classrooms. To Science Scope April-May 2015.

Anderson, J.L., Caprino, K.,  Minshew, L.M., Horner, M.V., & Morton, T.,  (Under Review). Teacher Efficacy Across the Disciplines in 1:1 iPad Initiatives. Submitted to Journal of Technology and Teacher Education

Anderson, J.L., Barrow, E., Minshew, L.M., Morton, T., Horner, M.V., Reyes, A. & Copeland, D.Z. (Under Review). Overcoming barriers: Institutional barriers in a 1:1 iPad initiative at a high needs urban middle school. Submitted to Journal of Educational Change.

Anderson, J.L., Minshew, L.M., & McLendon, T. (Under Review). Outbreak! Exploring cells, pathogens and disease. Submited to Science Scope.

Presentations and Proceedings:

Minshew, L.M. & Anderson, J.L. (2015). Teacher implementation of co-designed iPad integrated instruction. In Proceedings of SITE, pp. 1536-15410, Las Vegas, Nevada. Outstanding Paper Award.

Minshew, L.M. & Anderson, J.L. (2015). Teacher efficacy in 1:1 tablet integration: Year 2. In Proceedings of SITE, pp. 1530-1535, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Anderson, J.L, Minshew, L.M., & Horner, M.V. (2015). Overcoming Barriers: Institutional Barriers in a 1:1 iPad Initiative at a High Needs Urban School. American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Horner, M.V., Minshew, L.M. (2015). Social Justice in 1:1 Initiatives: Schools, Transformation Models and School Culture. Submitted to American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Caprino, K., Compreatore, A., Bean, M. & Anderson, J. (2015). Cambourne's Conditions for Learning as Framework for Teachers' TPACK Acquisition and Application Through Professional Development. Submitted to American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

Minshew, L., Caprino, K., Anderson, J.L.,  and Justice, J.E. (2014).  Teacher Efficacy in 1:1 Tablet Integration.  Presented at the Society for Technology and Teacher Education, Jacksonville, Florida, March 2014. Outstanding Paper Award

Bean, M., Minshew, L.M., Horner, M.V., Bolick, C., Anderson, J., & Justice, J. (2014) No Dusty Textbooks Needed: iPadagogy in the Social Studies Classroom. To Be Presented at the National Conference of Social Studies, Boston, MA. November 21-23, 2014.

Minshew, L.M. & Anderson, J.L. (2014). Teacher Efficacy in a 1:1 Science Classroom: A Case Study. Paper to be presented at the Mid-Atlantic Association for Science Teacher Education. Blowing Rock, NC. September 19-20, 2014